Table of Contents

PART 1: THE WONDERS OF VITAMIN D» PART 2: THE VITAMIN D CURE PLAN» PART 3: The Vitamin D Cure for Total Health»
Appendix B. The Right Vitamin D Tests»

Discusses the wonders of Vitamin D.

Talks about how we need more Vitamin D.


References in this Section

Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women.
Arunabh S, Pollack S, Yeh J, Aloia JF. Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan;88(1):157-61.
Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects.
Bell NH, Epstein S, Greene A, Shary J, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):370-3.
Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):18-28.
The influence of smoking on vitamin D status and calcium metabolism.
Brot C, Jorgensen NR, Sorensen OH. The influence of smoking on vitamin D status and calcium metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Dec;53(12):920-6.
Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs.
Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1710S-6S.
Association of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and low cortical bone density in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.
Cheng S, Tylavsky F, Kroger H, Karkkainen M, Lyytikainen A, Koistinen A, Mahonen A, Alen M, Halleen J, Vaananen K, Lamberg-Allardt C. Association of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and low cortical bone density in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):485-92.
Estimates of optimal vitamin D status.
Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R. Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Jul;16(7):713-6. Epub 2005 Mar 18.
Racial/ethnic considerations in making recommendations for vitamin D for adult and elderly men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B. Racial/ethnic considerations in making recommendations for vitamin D for adult and elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1763S-6S.
Blunted seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and increased risk of osteomalacia in vegetarian London Asians.
Finch PJ, Ang L, Colston KW, Nisbet J, Maxwell JD. Blunted seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and increased risk of osteomalacia in vegetarian London Asians. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992 Jul;46(7):509-15.
Low birth-weight infants: the continuing ethnic disparity and the interaction of biology and environment.
Fuller KE. Low birth-weight infants: the continuing ethnic disparity and the interaction of biology and environment. Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):432-45.
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents.
Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Jun;158(6):531-7.
Prevalence and significance of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy subjects in Delhi.
Goswami R, Gupta N, Goswami D, Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Kochupillai N. Prevalence and significance of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy subjects in Delhi. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2):472-5.
[Study of regional differences in the population morbidity and mortality from the standpoint of geographical latitude syndrome]
Gundarov IA, Zil’bert NL. [Study of regional differences in the population morbidity and mortality from the standpoint of geographical latitude syndrome] Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991(11):52-6.
Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women.
Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jun;67(6):1232-6.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone turnover in elderly blacks and whites.
Harris SS, Soteriades E, Dawson-Hughes B; Framingham Heart Study; Boston Low-Income Elderly Osteoporosis Study. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone turnover in elderly blacks and whites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3801-4.
Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health.
Hashemipour S, Larijani B, Adibi H, Javadi E, Sedaghat M, Pajouhi M, Soltani A, Shafaei AR, Hamidi Z, Fard AR, Hossein-Nezhad A, Booya F. Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health. 2004 Aug 25;4:38.
Estimations of the human ‘vitamin D’ UV exposure in the USA.
Kimlin MG, Schallhorn KA. Estimations of the human ‘vitamin D’ UV exposure in the USA. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2004 Nov-Dec;3(11-12):1067-70. Epub 2004 Nov 17.
Presentation of vitamin D deficiency.
Ladhani S, Srinivasan L, Buchanan C, Allgrove J. Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Aug;89(8):781-4.
Vitamin d deficiency and seasonal variation in an adult South Florida population.
Levis S, Gomez A, Jimenez C, Veras L, Ma F, Lai S, Hollis B, Roos BA. Vitamin d deficiency and seasonal variation in an adult South Florida population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;90(3):1557-62. Epub 2005 Jan 5.
Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults.
Liu BA, Gordon M, Labranche JM, Murray TM, Vieth R, Shear NH. Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997 May;45(5):598-603.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III.
Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone. 2002 May;30(5):771-7.
Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3.
MacLaughlin J, Holick MF. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest. 1985 Oct;76(4):1536-8.
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, Zadshir A, Tareen N, Thadhani R, Felsenfeld A, Levine B, Mehrotra R, Norris K. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jun 11;167(11):1159-65.
Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis.
Matsuoka LY, Ide L, Wortsman J, MacLaughlin JA, Holick MF. Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jun;64(6):1165-8.
Vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone and sunlight in Turkish, Moroccan and Caucasian children in The Netherlands.
Meulmeester JF, van den Berg H, Wedel M, Boshuis PG, Hulshof KF, Luyken R. Vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone and sunlight in Turkish, Moroccan and Caucasian children in The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990 Jun;44(6):461-70.
Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
Nesby-O’Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Hollis BW, Looker AC, Allen C, Doughertly C, Gunter EW, Bowman BA. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):187-92.
Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians.
Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA. Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ. 2002 Jun 11;166(12):1517-24.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to physical activity and ethnicity but not obesity in a multicultural workforce.
Scragg R, Holdaway I, Singh V, Metcalf P, Baker J, Dryson E. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to physical activity and ethnicity but not obesity in a multicultural workforce. Aust N Z J Med. 1995 Jun;25(3):218-23.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4-8 y living in the southeastern United States.
Stein EM, Laing EM, Hall DB, Hausman DB, Kimlin MG, Johnson MA, Modlesky CM, Wilson AR, Lewis RD. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4-8 y living in the southeastern United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):75-81.
Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults.
Tangpricha V, Pearce EN, Chen TC, Holick MF. Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. Am J Med. 2002 Jun 1;112(8):659-62.
Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety.
Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):842-56.
The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective.
Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland CF, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Lamberg-Allardt C, McGrath JJ, Norman AW, Scragg R, Whiting SJ, Willett WC, Zittermann A. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):649-50.
Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin.
Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Aug;67(2):373-8.
An evaluation of the relative contributions of exposure to sunlight and of diet to the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in an elderly nursing home population in Boston.
Webb AR, Pilbeam C, Hanafin N, Holick MF. An evaluation of the relative contributions of exposure to sunlight and of diet to the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in an elderly nursing home population in Boston. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Jun;51(6):1075-81.
Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.
Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):690-3.


This talk about how Vitamin D works


References in this Section

Nuclear hormone receptors and gene expression.
Aranda A, Pascual A. Nuclear hormone receptors and gene expression. Physiol Rev. 2001 Jul;81(3):1269-304.
Vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor interactions in motion.
Barsony J, Prufer K. Vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor interactions in motion. Vitam Horm. 2002;65:345-76.
Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth.
Brooke OG, Brown IR, Bone CD, Carter ND, Cleeve HJ, Maxwell JD, Robinson VP, Winder SM. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth. Br Med J. 1980 Mar 15;280(6216):751-4
Intrauterine vitamin D nutrition and postnatal growth in Asian infants.
Brooke OG, Butters F, Wood C. Intrauterine vitamin D nutrition and postnatal growth in Asian infants. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981 Oct 17;283(6298):1024.
Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D.
DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1689S-96S.
Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women.
Devine A, Wilson SG, Dick IM, Prince RL. Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Feb;75(2):283-8.
Genomic and proteomic approaches for probing the role of vitamin D in health.
Fleet JC. Genomic and proteomic approaches for probing the role of vitamin D in health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1730S-4S.
Calcium absorptive effects of vitamin D and its major metabolites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Heaney RP, Barger-Lux MJ, Dowell MS, Chen TC, Holick MF. Calcium absorptive effects of vitamin D and its major metabolites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Dec;82(12):4111-6.
Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency.
Heaney RP. Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1706S-9S.
Skin as the site of vitamin D synthesis and target tissue for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Use of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for treatment of psoriasis.
Holick MF, Smith E, Pincus S. Skin as the site of vitamin D synthesis and target tissue for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Use of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for treatment of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 1987 Dec;123(12):1677-1683a.
Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in elderly women: effect on serum parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites.
Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Rafferty KA, Balhorn KE. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in elderly women: effect on serum parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Feb;67(2):342-8.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid bind to the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain.
Lengqvist J, Mata De Urquiza A, Bergman AC, Willson TM, Sjovall J, Perlmann T, Griffiths WJ. Polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid bind to the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004 Jul;3(7):692-703. Epub 2004 Apr 8.
Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption.
McKane WR, Khosla S, Egan KS, Robins SP, Burritt MF, Riggs BL. Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 May;81(5):1699-703.
Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size.
Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):906-12. Epub 2005 Dec 13.
Causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism in a healthy population: the Tromso study.
Saleh F, Jorde R, Sundsfjord J, Haug E, Figenschau Y. Causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism in a healthy population: the Tromso study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24(1):58-64.
Vitamin D: more than a “bone-a-fide” hormone.
Sutton AL, MacDonald PN. Vitamin D: more than a “bone-a-fide” hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 2003 May;17(5):777-91. Epub 2003 Mar 13.
Vitamin D3 analogs stimulate hair growth in nude mice.
Vegesna V, O’Kelly J, Uskokovic M, Said J, Lemp N, Saitoh T, Ikezoe T, Binderup L, Koeffler HP. Vitamin D3 analogs stimulate hair growth in nude mice. Endocrinology. 2002 Nov;143(11):4389-96.
Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety.
Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):842-56.



References in this Section

Hypomagnesemia.
Agus ZS. Hypomagnesemia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Jul;10(7):1616-22.
Acute metabolic acidosis enhances circulating parathyroid hormone, which contributes to the renal response against acidosis in the rat.
Bichara M, Mercier O, Borensztein P, Paillard M. Acute metabolic acidosis enhances circulating parathyroid hormone, which contributes to the renal response against acidosis in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1990 Aug;86(2):430-43.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the apparent affinity of vitamin D metabolites for human vitamin D-binding protein.
Bouillon R, Xiang DZ, Convents R, Van Baelen H. Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the apparent affinity of vitamin D metabolites for human vitamin D-binding protein. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992 Sep;42(8):855-61.
Acid-base imbalance and the skeleton.
Bushinsky DA. Acid-base imbalance and the skeleton. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):238-44.
Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century.
Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54.
Hypomagnesemic disorders.
Dacey MJ. Hypomagnesemic disorders. Crit Care Clin. 2001 Jan;17(1):155-73, viii.
Calcium intake and body weight.
Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4635-8.
Effect of dietary protein supplements on calcium excretion in healthy older men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Rasmussen H, Song L, Dallal GE. Effect of dietary protein supplements on calcium excretion in healthy older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Mar;89(3):1169-73.
Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males.
Dimai HP, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, Lindschinger M, Pamperl I, Dobnig H, Wilders-Truschnig M, Lau KH. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug;83(8):2742-8.
Paleolithic vs. modern diets–selected pathophysiological implications.
Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd. Paleolithic vs. modern diets–selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr. 2000 Apr;39(2):67-70.
Diet, evolution and aging–the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.
Frassetto L, Morris RC Jr, Sellmeyer DE, Todd K, Sebastian A. Diet, evolution and aging–the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):200-13.
Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline.
Frassetto LA, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline. Am J Physiol. 1996 Dec;271(6 Pt 2):F1114-22.
The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.
Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):373-85.
Adipocyte biology and adipocytokines.
Haque WA, Garg A. Adipocyte biology and adipocytokines. Clin Lab Med. 2004 Mar;24(1):217-34.
Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism.
Havel PJ. Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism. Diabetes. 2004 Feb;53 Suppl 1:S143-51.
Constructive interactions among nutrients and bone-active pharmacologic agents with principal emphasis on calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and protein.
Heaney RP. Constructive interactions among nutrients and bone-active pharmacologic agents with principal emphasis on calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and protein. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Oct;20(5 Suppl):403S-409S; discussion 417S-420S.
High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.
Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):586-91.
Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets.
Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, White A, Hutchins H, Sears B. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):1055-61.
Nutrition, acid-base status and growth in early childhood.
Kalhoff H, Manz F. Nutrition, acid-base status and growth in early childhood. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):221-30.
Association between preference for sweets and excessive alcohol intake: a review of animal and human studies.
Kampov-Polevoy AB, Garbutt JC, Janowsky DS. Association between preference for sweets and excessive alcohol intake: a review of animal and human studies. Alcohol Alcohol. 1999 May-Jun;34(3):386-95.
Intakes of calcium and vitamin d predict body mass index in the population of Northern Norway.
Kamycheva E, Joakimsen RM, Jorde R. Intakes of calcium and vitamin d predict body mass index in the population of Northern Norway. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):102-6.
Metabolic acidosis suppresses 25-hydroxyvitamin in D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in the rat kidney.
Kawashima H, Kraut JA, Kurokawa K. Metabolic acidosis suppresses 25-hydroxyvitamin in D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in the rat kidney. Distinct site and mechanism of action. J Clin Invest. 1982 Jul;70(1):135-40.
Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis.
Kersten S. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. EMBO Rep. 2001 Apr;2(4):282-6.
A threshold for low-protein-diet-induced elevations in parathyroid hormone.
Kerstetter JE, Svastisalee CM, Caseria DM, Mitnick ME, Insogna KL. A threshold for low-protein-diet-induced elevations in parathyroid hormone. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jul;72(1):168-73.
Bone buffering of acid and base in humans.
Lemann J Jr, Bushinsky DA, Hamm LL. Bone buffering of acid and base in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):F811-32.
History of nutrition and acid-base physiology.
Manz F. History of nutrition and acid-base physiology. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):189-99.
Inadequate nutrient intakes are common and are associated with low diet variety in rural, community-dwelling elderly.
Marshall TA, Stumbo PJ, Warren JJ, Xie XJ. Inadequate nutrient intakes are common and are associated with low diet variety in rural, community-dwelling elderly. J Nutr. 2001 Aug;131(8):2192-6.
Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans.
Maurer M, Riesen W, Muser J, Hulter HN, Krapf R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Jan;284(1):F32-40. Epub 2002 Sep 24.
Retinoic acid and vitamin D(3) powerfully inhibit in vitro leptin secretion by human adipose tissue.
Menendez C, Lage M, Peino R, Baldelli R, Concheiro P, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF. Retinoic acid and vitamin D(3) powerfully inhibit in vitro leptin secretion by human adipose tissue. J Endocrinol. 2001 Aug;170(2):425-31.
Metabolic and clinical consequences of metabolic acidosis.
Mitch WE. Metabolic and clinical consequences of metabolic acidosis. J Nephrol. 2006 Mar-Apr;19 Suppl 9:S70-5.
Second meal effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D. Eur J Clin Nutr.
Soares MJ, Chan She Ping-Delfos W. Second meal effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 May 23; [Epub ahead of print]
Dietary acid-base balance and intake of bone-related nutrients in Cambridge teenagers.
Prynne CJ, Ginty F, Paul AA, Bolton-Smith C, Stear SJ, Jones SC, Prentice A. Dietary acid-base balance and intake of bone-related nutrients in Cambridge teenagers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;58(11):1462-71.
Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.
Remer T, Manz F. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jul;95(7):791-7.
Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance–metabolic aspects.
Remer T. Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance–metabolic aspects. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):214-20.
Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homosapiens and their hominid ancestors.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homosapiens and their hominid ancestors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1308-16.
Ethnic differences in titratable acid excretion and bone mineralization.
Vaitkevicius H, Witt R, Maasdam M, Walters K, Gould M, Mackenzie S, Farrow S, Lockette W. Ethnic differences in titratable acid excretion and bone mineralization. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Feb;34(2):295-302.
Calcium intake, body fat, and bones a complex relation.
Weaver CM, Mobley SL. Calcium intake, body fat, and bones a complex relation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):527.
Metabolic and endocrine effects of metabolic acidosis in humans
Wiederkehr M, Krapf R. Metabolic and endocrine effects of metabolic acidosis in humans. Swiss Med Wkly. 2001 Mar 10;131(9-10):127-32.
Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults.
Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr;12(4):582-90.

Discusses the Vitamin D Cure Plan in depth



References in this Section

Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women.
Arunabh S, Pollack S, Yeh J, Aloia JF. Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan;88(1):157-61.
Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects.
Bell NH, Epstein S, Greene A, Shary J, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):370-3.
Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women.
Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jun;67(6):1232-6.
Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants.
Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN Jr, Charlton PA, Calikoglu AS, Davenport ML. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 2000 Aug;137(2):153-7.
Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults.
Liu BA, Gordon M, Labranche JM, Murray TM, Vieth R, Shear NH. Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997 May;45(5):598-603.
Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3.
MacLaughlin J, Holick MF. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest. 1985 Oct;76(4):1536-8.
Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis.
Matsuoka LY, Ide L, Wortsman J, MacLaughlin JA, Holick MF. Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jun;64(6):1165-8.
Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
Nesby-O’Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Hollis BW, Looker AC, Allen C, Doughertly C, Gunter EW, Bowman BA. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):187-92.
Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of infants with rickets.
Nozza JM, Rodda CP. Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of infants with rickets. Med J Aust. 2001 Sep 3;175(5):253-5.
Elderly women in northern New England exhibit seasonal changes in bone mineral density and calciotropic hormones.
Rosen CJ, Morrison A, Zhou H, Storm D, Hunter SJ, Musgrave K, Chen T, Wei W, Holick MF. Elderly women in northern New England exhibit seasonal changes in bone mineral density and calciotropic hormones. Bone Miner. 1994 May;25(2):83-92.
Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy.
Specker B. Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1740S-7S.
Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D.
Vieth R, Ladak Y, Walfish PG. Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan;88(1):185-91.
Vitamin D requirements: current and future.
Weaver CM, Fleet JC. Vitamin D requirements: current and future. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1735S-9S.
Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.
Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):690-3.
 



References in this Section

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates.
Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):447-52.
Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia.
Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Simhan HN, Holick MF, Powers RW, Roberts JM. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;92(9):3517-22. Epub 2007 May 29.
Issues in establishing vitamin D recommendations for infants and children.
Greer FR. Issues in establishing vitamin D recommendations for infants and children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1759S-62S.
Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol.
Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):204-10.
Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant.
Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1752S-8S.
Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy.
Specker B. Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1740S-7S.
Tanning is associated with optimal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and higher bone mineral density.
Tangpricha V, Turner A, Spina C, Decastro S, Chen TC, Holick MF. Tanning is associated with optimal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and higher bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1645-9.
Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level.
Vieth R, Chan PC, MacFarlane GD. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):288-94.
Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients.
Vieth R, Kimball S, Hu A, Walfish PG. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients. Nutr J. 2004 Jul 19;3(1):8.
Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety.
Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):842-56.
Why the optimal requirement for Vitamin D3 is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults.
Vieth R. Why the optimal requirement for Vitamin D3 is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90(1-5):575-9.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to oral vitamin D intake in children.
Zittermann A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to oral vitamin D intake in children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):496-7.



References in this Section

Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century.
Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54.
Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals.
Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Rajaram S, Fraser GE. Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals. Br J Nutr. 2004 Sep;92(3):533-40.
Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2554-60.
Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited.
Kerstetter JE, O’Brien KO, Insogna KL. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):584S-592S.
Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals.
Lemon PW. Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):513S-521S.
The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet.
Lock K, Pomerleau J, Causer L, Altmann DR, McKee M. The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Feb;83(2):100-8. Epub 2005 Feb 24.
Metabolic and clinical consequences of metabolic acidosis.
Mitch WE. Metabolic and clinical consequences of metabolic acidosis. J Nephrol. 2006 Mar-Apr;19 Suppl 9:S70-5.
Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations.
Munoz KA, Krebs-Smith SM, Ballard-Barbash R, Cleveland LE. Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics. 1997 Sep;100(3 Pt 1):323-9.
Dietary acid-base balance and intake of bone-related nutrients in Cambridge teenagers.
Prynne CJ, Ginty F, Paul AA, Bolton-Smith C, Stear SJ, Jones SC, Prentice A. Dietary acid-base balance and intake of bone-related nutrients in Cambridge teenagers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;58(11):1462-71.
Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism.
Reddy ST, Wang CY, Sakhaee K, Brinkley L, Pak CY. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Aug;40(2):265-74.
Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.
Remer T, Manz F. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jul;95(7):791-7.



References in this Section

Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans.
Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H. Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1467S-1476S.
Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium.
Barger-Lux MJ, Davies KM, Heaney RP. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium. J Nutr. 2005 Oct;135(10):2362-6.
Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption.
Bronner F, Pansu D. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J Nutr. 1999 Jan;129(1):9-12.
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.
Calder PC. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S.
Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach.
Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, Gueux E, Tressol JC, Mazur A, Rayssiguier Y. Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):215-23.
Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the paleolithic.
Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd, Sinclair AJ, Cordain L, Mann NJ. Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the paleolithic. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1998;83:12-23.
Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults.
Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2879-82.
Absorbability and cost effectiveness in calcium supplementation.
Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Bierman J, Hale CA, Bendich A. Absorbability and cost effectiveness in calcium supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Jun;20(3):239-46.
Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Hale CA, Bendich A. Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Apr;22(2):142-6.
Calcium absorption from kale.
Heaney RP, Weaver CM. Calcium absorption from kale. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Apr;51(4):656-7.
Passive diffusion does not play a major role in the absorption of dietary calcium in normal adults.
McCormick CC. Passive diffusion does not play a major role in the absorption of dietary calcium in normal adults. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3428-30.
Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations.
Munoz KA, Krebs-Smith SM, Ballard-Barbash R, Cleveland LE. Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics. 1997 Sep;100(3 Pt 1):323-9.
Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach.
Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, Gueux E, Tressol JC, Mazur A, Rayssiguier Y. Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):215-23.
Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism.
Reddy ST, Wang CY, Sakhaee K, Brinkley L, Pak CY. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Aug;40(2):265-74.
Calcium requirements of physically active people.
Weaver CM. Calcium requirements of physically active people. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):579S-84S.

This chapter explains how exercise enhances vitamin D levels and how vitamin D can enhance your workouts.

References in this Section

Stimulation of myoblast membrane protein synthesis by 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3.
Bellido T, Boland R. Stimulation of myoblast membrane protein synthesis by 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3. Z Naturforsch [C]. 1989 Sep-Oct;44(9-10):807-12.
Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or =60 y.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Hu FB, Zhang Y, Karlson EW, Dawson-Hughes B. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or =60 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):752-8.
Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and pulmonary function in the third national health and nutrition examination survey.
Black PN, Scragg R. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and pulmonary function in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Chest. 2005 Dec;128(6):3792-8.
The evolution of physical activity recommendations: how much is enough?
Blair SN, LaMonte MJ, Nichaman MZ. The evolution of physical activity recommendations: how much is enough? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):913S-920S.
Deletion of vitamin D receptor gene in mice results in abnormal skeletal muscle development with deregulated expression of myoregulatory transcription factors.
Endo I, Inoue D, Mitsui T, Umaki Y, Akaike M, Yoshizawa T, Kato S, Matsumoto T. Deletion of vitamin D receptor gene in mice results in abnormal skeletal muscle development with deregulated expression of myoregulatory transcription factors. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5138-44. Epub 2003 Aug 13.
Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people.
Janssen HC, Samson MM, Verhaar HJ. Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Apr;75(4):611-5.
Relationship of leisure-time physical activity and mortality: the Finnish twin cohort.
Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Sarna S, Koskenvuo M. Relationship of leisure-time physical activity and mortality: the Finnish twin cohort. JAMA. 1998 Feb 11;279(6):440-4.
Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older.
Larson EB, Wang L, Bowen JD, McCormick WC, Teri L, Crane P, Kukull W. Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jan 17;144(2):73-81.
Vitamin D receptor ablation alters skin architecture and homeostasis of dendritic epidermal T cells.
Meindl S, Rot A, Hoetzenecker W, Kato S, Cross HS, Elbe-Burger A. Vitamin D receptor ablation alters skin architecture and homeostasis of dendritic epidermal T cells. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Feb;152(2):231-41.
Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women.
Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Abrams C, Nachtigall D, Hansen C. Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 2000 Jun;15(6):1113-8.
Severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency in western New York.
Prabhala A, Garg R, Dandona P. Severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency in western New York. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr 24;160(8):1199-203.
How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement.
Saris WH, Blair SN, van Baak MA, Eaton SB, Davies PS, Di Pietro L, Fogelholm M, Rissanen A, Schoeller D, Swinburn B, Tremblay A, Westerterp KR, Wyatt H. How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Obes Rev. 2003 May;4(2):101-14.
Summary measure of dietary musculoskeletal nutrient (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus) intakes is associated with lower-extremity physical performance in homebound elderly men and women.
Sharkey JR, Giuliani C, Haines PS, Branch LG, Busby-Whitehead J, Zohoori N. Summary measure of dietary musculoskeletal nutrient (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus) intakes is associated with lower-extremity physical performance in homebound elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):847-56.
Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study.
Venables MC, Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):160-7. Epub 2004 Aug 27.
Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.
Visser M, Deeg DJ, Lips P; Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;88(12):5766-72.

PART 3: The Vitamin D Cure for Total Health



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Disruption of nuclear vitamin D receptor gene causes enhanced thrombogenicity in mice.
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Vitamin D3 improves impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the vitamin D-deficient rat in vivo.
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Hypomagnesemia is linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol irrespective of serum glucose values.
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Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
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Calcium from dairy products, vitamin D intake, and blood pressure: the Tromso Study.
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Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Haemostatic Factors in Healthy Subjects: The Tromso Study.
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Intakes of calcium and vitamin d predict body mass index in the population of Northern Norway.
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Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer. 1992 Dec 15;70(12):2861-9.
Tallness and overweight during childhood have opposing effects on breast cancer risk.
Hilakivi-Clarke L, Forsen T, Eriksson JG, Luoto R, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C, Barker DJ. Tallness and overweight during childhood have opposing effects on breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2001 Nov 30;85(11):1680-4.
Expression of a human homeobox-containing gene is regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in bone cells.
Hodgkinson JE, Davidson CL, Beresford J, Sharpe PT. Expression of a human homeobox-containing gene is regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in bone cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Jul 18;1174(1):11-6.
Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the risk of prostate cancer.
Jacobs ET, Giuliano AR, Martinez ME, Hollis BW, Reid ME, Marshall JR. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90(1-5):533-7.
G2/M arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in ovarian cancer cells mediated through the induction of GADD45 via an exonic enhancer.
Jiang F, Li P, Fornace AJ Jr, Nicosia SV, Bai W. G2/M arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in ovarian cancer cells mediated through the induction of GADD45 via an exonic enhancer. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28;278(48):48030-40. Epub 2003 Sep 23.
Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
John EM, Schwartz GG, Dreon DM, Koo J. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 May;8(5):399-406.
Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women.
Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women. JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9.
Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity.
Li CI, Malone KE, Daling JR. Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):49-56.
Diet and cancer: the disconnect between epidemiology and randomized clinical trials.
Meyskens FL Jr, Szabo E. Diet and cancer: the disconnect between epidemiology and randomized clinical trials. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jun;14(6):1366-9.
Diet and melanoma in a case-control study.
Millen AE, Tucker MA, Hartge P, Halpern A, Elder DE, Guerry D 4th, Holly EA, Sagebiel RW, Potischman N. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Jun;13(6):1042-51.
Consumption of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer: a review of the literature.
Moorman PG, Terry PD. Consumption of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer: a review of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):5-14.
Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum from Japanese men and women over forty years of age.
Morton MS, Arisaka O, Miyake N, Morgan LD, Evans BA. Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum from Japanese men and women over forty years of age. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):3168-71.
No preventive effect of dietary fiber against colon cancer in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional analysis.
Nakaji S, Shimoyama T, Wada S, Sugawara K, Tokunaga S, MacAuley D, Baxter D. No preventive effect of dietary fiber against colon cancer in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):156-9.
Vitamin D and systemic cancer: is this relevant to malignant melanoma?
Osborne JE, Hutchinson PE. Vitamin D and systemic cancer: is this relevant to malignant melanoma? Br J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;147(2):197-213.
Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.
Platz EA, Leitzmann MF, Hollis BW, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Apr;15(3):255-65.
Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men.
Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ, Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi D, Giovannucci EL, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jul;12(7):597-603.
Sun exposure may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study.
Hughes AM, Armstrong BK, Vajdic CM, Turner J, Grulich AE, Fritschi L, Milliken S, Kaldor J, Benke G, Kricker A. Sun exposure may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):865-71.
Obesity and cancer risk among white and black United States veterans.
Samanic C, Gridley G, Chow WH, Lubin J, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr. Obesity and cancer risk among white and black United States veterans. Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Feb;15(1):35-43.
Human prostate cancer cells: inhibition of proliferation by vitamin D analogs.
Schwartz GG, Oeler TA, Uskokovic MR, Bahnson RR. Human prostate cancer cells: inhibition of proliferation by vitamin D analogs. Anticancer Res. 1994 May-Jun;14(3A):1077-81.
1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits the invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells.
Schwartz GG, Wang MH, Zang M, Singh RK, Siegal GP. 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits the invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Sep;6(9):727-32.
Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Schwartz GG, Whitlatch LW, Chen TC, Lokeshwar BL, Holick MF. Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 May;7(5):391-5.
Differential biological effects of 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D3 on melanoma cell lines in vitro.
Seifert M, Rech M, Meineke V, Tilgen W, Reichrath J. Differential biological effects of 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D3 on melanoma cell lines in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90(1-5):375-9.
Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer.
Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Sep 4;94(17):1301-11.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas.
Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Melbye M, Torrang A, Rostgaard K, Munksgaard L, Adami J,Hansen M, Porwit-MacDonald A, Jensen BA, Roos G, Pedersen BB, Sundstrom C,Glimelius B, Adami HO. Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 2;97(3):199-209.
Melanoma and lifetime UV radiation.
Solomon CC, White E, Kristal AR, Vaughan T. Melanoma and lifetime UV radiation. Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Nov;15(9):893-902.
Vitamin D-3 receptor as a target for breast cancer prevention.
Welsh J, Wietzke JA, Zinser GM, Byrne B, Smith K, Narvaez CJ. Vitamin D-3 receptor as a target for breast cancer prevention. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2425S-2433S.
Vitamin D and breast cancer: insights from animal models.
Welsh J. Vitamin D and breast cancer: insights from animal models. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1721S-4S.
Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from breast cancer.
Yang CY, Chiu HF, Cheng MF, Hsu TY, Cheng MF, Wu TN. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from breast cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Jun;60(4):231-41.
Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from prostate cancer.
Yang CY, Chiu HF, Tsai SS, Cheng MF, Lin MC, Sung FC. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from prostate cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 May 12;60(1):17-26.
Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer.
Yang CY, Chiu HF, Tsai SS, Wu TN, Chang CC. Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer. Magnes Res. 2002 Dec;15(3-4):215-22.
The prostate 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase is not influenced by parathyroid hormone and calcium: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention by vitamin D.
Young MV, Schwartz GG, Wang L, Jamieson DP, Whitlatch LW, Flanagan JN, Lokeshwar BL, Holick MF, Chen TC. The prostate 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase is not influenced by parathyroid hormone and calcium: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention by vitamin D. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun;25(6):967-71.
Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related nutrients and the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among women.
Zhang SM, Hunter DJ, Rosner BA, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC.Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related nutrients and the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 May;9(5):477-85.
Vitamin D is associated with improved survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Zhou W, Suk R, Liu G, Park S, Neuberg DS, Wain JC, Lynch TJ, Giovannucci E, Christiani DC. Vitamin D is associated with improved survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Oct;14(10):2303-9.



References in this Section

The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance
Abate N, Chandalia M, Cabo-Chan AV Jr, Moe OW, Sakhaee K. The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance. Kidney Int. 2004 Feb;65(2):386-92.
Long-term protein intake and dietary potential renal acid load are associated with bone modeling and remodeling at the proximal radius in healthy children
Alexy U, Remer T, Manz F, Neu CM, Schoenau E. Long-term protein intake and dietary potential renal acid load are associated with bone modeling and remodeling at the proximal radius in healthy children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Nov;82(5):1107-14.
Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants
Backstrom MC, Maki R, Kuusela AL, Sievanen H, Koivisto AM, Ikonen RS, Kouri T, Maki M. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 May;80(3):F161-6.
Factors affecting the solubility of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals
Bennett RM, Lehr JR, McCarty DJ. Factors affecting the solubility of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. J Clin Invest. 1975 Dec;56(6):1571-9.
Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial
Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, Akos R, Knecht M, Salis C, Nebiker M, Theiler R, Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Lew RA, Conzelmann M. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Feb;18(2):343-51.
Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, Staehelin HB, Bazemore MG, Zee RY, Wong JB. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004 Apr 28;291(16):1999-2006.
Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults. Am J Med. 2004 May 1;116(9):634-9
Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.
1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of arthritis in murine models of human arthritis
Cantorna MT, Hayes CE, DeLuca HF. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of arthritis in murine models of human arthritis. J Nutr. 1998 Jan;128(1):68-72
Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women
Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 3;327(23):1637-42.
Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study
Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, Garnero P, Meunier PJ. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int. 2002 Mar;13(3):257-64.
Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men
Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1093-103.
Weight loss: the treatment of choice for knee osteoarthritis? A randomized trial
Christensen R, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Weight loss: the treatment of choice for knee osteoarthritis? A randomized trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005 Jan;13(1):20-7
Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries
Craelius W. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1978 Sep;32(3):155-65.
Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6.
Nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants
DeLucia MC, Mitnick ME, Carpenter TO. Nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8):3539-45.
Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population
Dietrich T, Joshipura KJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):108-13.
Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males
Dimai HP, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, Lindschinger M, Pamperl I, Dobnig H, Wilders-Truschnig M, Lau KH. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug;83(8):2742-8.
Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women
Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):504-11.
Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods
Frassetto LA, Todd KM, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000 Oct;55(10):M585-92
Effects of the submarine environment on renal-stone risk factors and vitamin D metabolism
Dlugos DJ, Perrotta PL, Horn WG. Effects of the submarine environment on renal-stone risk factors and vitamin D metabolism. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1995 Jun;22(2):145-52.
Evidence of altered bone turnover, vitamin D and calcium regulation with knee osteoarthritis in female twins
Hunter DJ, Hart D, Snieder H, Bettica P, Swaminathan R, Spector TD. Evidence of altered bone turnover, vitamin D and calcium regulation with knee osteoarthritis in female twins. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 Nov;42(11):1311-6. Epub 2003 Jul 16.
The role of bone metabolism in osteoarthritis
Hunter DJ, Spector TD. The role of bone metabolism in osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2003 Feb;5(1):15-9.
Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures
• Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B,Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL,Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O’Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D; Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83
Princess Anne Hospital Study Group. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study
Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C; Princess Anne Hospital Study Group. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):36-43.
Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly
Krall EA, Wehler C, Garcia RI, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Am J Med. 2001 Oct 15;111(6):452-6.
Vitamin D and attainment of peak bone mass among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study
Lehtonen-Veromaa MK, Mottonen TT, Nuotio IO, Irjala KM, Leino AE, Viikari JS. Vitamin D and attainment of peak bone mass among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1446-53.

Frequently asked questions about the Vitamin D Cure.

What tests should you have measured and what do they mean?